Раздел 1. Аудирование
Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждую букву, обозначающую утверждение, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в поле справа.
1. This expensive rink is worth it.
2. Everyone can afford to skate there.
3. Special boots are offered here.
4. You can skate peacefully in this little place.
5. It is the place to attend figure skating classes.
6. The weather condition is the main factor.
7. This famous fairy tale is brought to the ice rink.
Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведенных утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Вы услышите запись дважды.
A. Ella is drinking coffee with Brian every Friday.
B. Softball is a kind of football.
C. Softball involves taking part in many competitions.
D. Brian doesn’t have the opportunity to surf in Washington.
E. Initially Brian surfed on extremely big waves.
F. Baseball needs tougher discipline than softball.
G. American football is the most liked game among students.
When did Lucas start acting?
1) After he came to Los Angeles.
2) Before he came to Los Angeles.
3) After he came to Salt Lake City.
What did he attend?
1) A music school
2) An acting school
3) Drama classes
Who told his mom about the plans to put on “High School Musical”?
1) His drama teacher.
2) The director of the theatre.
3) His friend.
What exactly was Lucas doing when he was working on the musical?
1) He was speaking to his director.
2) He was singing.
3) He was dancing.
How does Lucas spend his weekends?
1) He goes for a walk.
2) He visits his friends.
3) He listens to music.
What did Lucas organized before moving to Los Angeles?
1) A city meeting.
2) An exhibition.
3) A benefit show.
What advice does he give?
1) To work in a restaurant.
2) To experience life.
3) To find a director.
Раздел 2. Чтение
1. A good source of information
2. Increasing the accessibility
3. The revival of letter writing
4. A beautiful tradition lost
5. Making it quick and efficient
6. The victory of technology
7. As an art form
8. Writing material evolution
A. There is something pleasant about receiving a handwritten letter from a friend. It is also very enjoyable to write a letter — choosing the paper and envelope, writing with a favourite pen, and the satisfying closure of licking the envelope and putting on a stamp. Unfortunately, since the widespread use of email, not many people write and send letters any more. The history of letter writing, however, is very interesting.
B. Before the invention of the postal service, letters were delivered on foot by couriers. The ancient Greeks used athletic runners for that. Later, horses were used because they were faster and could be changed at various stations. The Romans developed this system into a postal service. The Latin word ‘positus’ meant carriers, and that is where the English word ‘post’ comes from.
C. The material of letter writing has changed over time. Originally, people wrote on clay tablets. Later the Egyptians started using papyrus, a plant that grows in the river. The English word ‘paper’ comes from this plant. In the West, paper was produced from animal skins. In medieval times, the Saxons used the bark of the beech tree, called bok. This is where the English word ‘book’ comes from.
D. Literacy has had a big effect on letter writing: if you can’t read you can’t write letters! Before the 15,h century letter writing was restricted to governments, the church, and the aristocracy. After the invention of the printing press that made books cheaper, literacy was greatly increased. Ordinary people started writing letters and it became the most popular and the only way of long distance communication until the invention of the telegraph in 1837.
E. Much of what we know of the lives of people long dead comes from personal letters. Certainly books have provided historical information about the Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, but much of what we know of daily life from these periods comes from letters. Modem biographers get most of their information about the famous people they are writing about from their correspondence.
F. In the 18th and 19th centuries, letter writing was considered an art and essential part of life. People wrote not only to keep in touch but also as a method of literary expression, as a work of art, and conformed to conventions of etiquette and form. Literary figures wrote letters knowing that they would be read in the future by historians, and one day might be published. There were even novels consisting of a series of letters, known as the epistolary novel.
G. Even after the telephone became a common fixture in homes, people continued to write letters. What killed the letter was the widespread use of email, and the development of texting and chatting on social media. This type of communication holds many advantages. You don’t need to worry about finding paper, envelopes, stamps, and going to the mailbox. It is also possible to get an instant reply.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке лишняя.
1. children whose first language is not English benefit even more
2. who want to work and
3. but keeping skills in the home language also
4. to level the playing field for children living in poverty
5. meet the highest professional standards
6. who start high-quality education earlier and
7. which in large part explains high-quality early education’s powerful effects
New research from Child Development Institute reveals that high- quality early education is especially advantageous for children when they start younger and continue longer. Not only does more high-quality early education significantly boost the language skills of children from low-income families, but also A______.
Scientists said previous research has shown language skills are most flexible for children before age 4, В______. The study examined children’s receptive language skills the ability to hear and understand words because these particular skills are an excellent predictor of later academic success. Educare’s comprehensive approach to early childhood education aims C ___________________. This new study confirms that we need to include the earliest years of life as a part of our nation’s education system.
The Educare program provides full-day, full-year centre-based education and care in class-rooms that D_____________for teacher education, group size, and child-teacher ratios.
Many people traditionally have viewed early care for infants primarily as a support for mothers E____________not as an essential component of early schooling. However, findings from the study add to a growing body of research revealing better outcomes for children from low-income families F ___________stay in it longer.
The number of young children who speak a other language than English at home is growing, and this study contributes new valuable information to the field.
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18, обводя цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.
The most deadly weather-related disasters aren’t necessarily caused by floods, droughts or hurricanes. They can be caused by heat waves, like the sweltering blanket that’s taken over 2,500 lives in India in recent weeks.
Temperatures broke 118 degrees in the parts of the country. The death toll is still being tallied, and many heat-related deaths will be recognized only after the fact. Yet it’s already the deadliest heat wave to hit India since at least 1998 and, by some accounts, the fourth or fifth deadliest worldwide since 1900.
These heat waves will only become more common as the planet continues to warm. They don’t just affect tropical, developing countries; they’re a threat throughout the world. The July 1995 heat wave in the Midwest caused over 700 deaths in Chicago. The August 2003 heat wave in western Europe led to about 45,000 deaths. The July-August 2010 heat wave in western Russia killed about 54,000 people.
But as anyone who’s spent a summer in the eastern United States knows, it’s not just the heat; it’s also the humidity. Together, they can be lethal, even if the heat doesn’t seem quite so extreme.
Scientists measure the combination using a metric known as wet-bulb temperature. It’s called that because it can be measured with a thermometer wrapped in a wet cloth, distinguishing it from the commonly reported drybulb temperature, measured in open air. Wet-bulb temperature can also be calculated from relative humidity, surface pressure and air temperature. It’s essentially a measure of how well you can cool your skin by sweating, which is how humans stay alive in the worst heat. But high humidity can defeat that cooling system; it makes the heat that much more dangerous.
The wet-bulb temperature is not typically reported. While dangerous levels depend on a person’s activity level and clothing, wet-bulb temperature offers a stark measure of risk in a warming world that will experience more extreme combinations of both heat and humidity. Temperature and wet-bulb temperature are not in a one-to-one relationship; both higher temperatures and higher humidities increase wet-bulb temperature. For instance, during the Chicago heat wave, on July 13, 1995, the maximum wet-bulb temperature of 85 degrees occurred at noon when the temperature was 99 degrees. But when it hit 106 degrees at 5 p.m., the wet-bulb temperature was 83 degrees. The former was more dangerous.
A human’s core temperature is about 98.6 degrees, but the skin temperature of the trunk is about 4 to 9 degrees colder, depending on how warm it is and how active a person is. But sweating, which helps keep the core body temperature constant, becomes increasingly ineffective in increasingly humid air, and it can never cool the skin to below the wet-bulb temperature.
A person who is physically active at a wet-bulb temperature of 80 degrees will have trouble maintaining a constant core temperature and risks overheating. A sedentary person who is naked and in the shade will run into the same problem at a wet-bulb temperature of 92 degrees. A wet- bulb temperature of 95 degrees is lethal after about six hours.
In the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, the highest wet-bulb temperatures of the latest heat wave have peaked around 86 degrees — levels approaching the worst of the 1995 Midwest heat wave, which set records in the United States for humid heat.
Heat waves are the natural disasters easiest to tie to climate change. Statistical analyses and climate modeling indicate that the 2010 Russian heat wave was about five times more likely to have occurred in 2010 than it would have been in the cooler 1960s. An analysis conducted after the 2003 European heat wave concluded that it was twice as likely as it would have been before the Industrial Revolution. A recent study in the journal Nature Climate Change found that the 1.5 degrees of global warming since the start of the Industrial Revolution had quadrupled the probability of moderate heat extremes.
What problem is raised in the article?
1) The problem of heat waves.
2) The problem of droughts.
3) The problem of hurricanes.
4) The problem of floods.
According to the author, the heat wave will become more common because ...
1) the climate influences ill people.
2) the climate on the planet is becoming warmer.
3) people are moving to warm countries.
4) the climate is changing because of people’s activity.
What idea is stressed by the author?
1) Heat waves affect tropical, developing countries.
2) Different countries all over the world face this problem.
3) Heat waves affect European countries most of all.
4) The influence of heat waves depends on the country and its location.
According to the author, heat waves are dangerous not only because of high temperatures but...
1) because of moisture.
2) because of climate change.
3) because of contamination.
4) because of deforestation and fires.
The temperature is measured with ...
1) bulbs calculating climate changes.
2) special tools to forecast temperature.
3) metric devices all over the world.
4) a thermometer wrapped in a wet cloth.
What does wet-bulb temperature offer?
1) Dangerous levels of a person’s activity.
2) Extreme combinations of heat and humidity all over the world.
3) A stark measure of risk in a warming world.
4) Dangers people face during heat waves.
What idea is stressed in the last paragraph?
1) The situation in the world is worsening.
2) The situation in the world doesn’t change.
3) The situation in the world is stable.
4) The situation in the world is improving.
Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика
Прочитайте приведенные ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные жирными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Перенесите полученный ответ в соответствующее поле справа. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19 — 25. Ответ пишите без пробелов и иных знаков.
BECOMEFor centuries, the Greeks had ignored the mountain people who lived to the north in Macedonia. In 359 BC, Philip___________ the king of Macedonians. Philip’s life centered on a great dream. He wanted to unite Greece.
LONGIn order to achieve this goal, Philip built a mighty army and attacked the southern city- states. These city-states were unable to defeat Philip. The Greeks could no_________ignore the people to the north.
COMBINEIn 339 BC, his army crushed the _______ forces of Athens and its allics. Philip died, but his dream survived.
HEHis 20-year-old son, Alexander, succeeded _____________. Alexander was trained well for his great task. He learned military strategy from his father Philip.
TEACHBefore he began his series of conquests, Aristotle, his teacher,_________him science.
TAKEIn 334 BC, he began his series of conquests by ____________over Egypt. Then he conquered West India and created the largest empire in the world of that time.
FAMOUSIn order to spread Greek ideas, Alexander founded many cities. The____________, Alexandria became an important centre of culture and had the largest library in the ancient world.
Прочитайте приведенный ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные жирными буквам в конце строк 26—31, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните соответствующее поле справа полученными словами. Каждое поле соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.
ORIGINALThe Banqueting House stands on a site that was______________the property of the Archbishops of York. It is the last remaining fragment of the Palace of Whitehall in Central London.
CREATEThe Palace of Whitehall was largely the____________of Henry VIII, expanding an earlier mansion that had belonged to Cardinal Wolsey, originally known as York Place.
RESIDENTThe King was determined that his new ________should be the ‘biggest palace in Christendom’. The first permanent banqueting house at Whitehall had a short life.
PLACEIt was burned down by workmen clearing up after the New Year’s festivities, who decided to incinerate the rubbish inside the building. An immediate ________ was commissioned from the fashionable architect Inigo Jones.
HARMONYHis Whitehall was to be a prime example of a simple, classically inspired design. Jones made no attempt to__________his design with the Tudor Palace of which it was to be part.
ENTERTAINIn the Stuarts’ time the Banqueting House was used to provide_________for Charles I, and ironically was later the scene of his execution. Today the Banqueting House is a national monument open to the public.
Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32 — 38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32 — 38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Обведите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа.
Online degrees are designed for individuals who already have a job and would like to 32________their careers, or for those who are simply not able to physically 33_________university. The whole idea behind this is to deliver quality education to people who are not in a position to 34__________on full-time studies. Distance learning degrees are 35_________to on-campus degrees in terms of 36____________and online students often follow the same syllabus as university students.
Universities offer two 37____________types of distance learning: online and correspondence courses. There are several advantages to this means of learning. Firstly, students save money on rent or on travel to and from the university, as well as on food. Studying online means that you can 38_____________your lessons from anywhere in the world as long as you have an internet connection. The content of the course is usually permanently available online.
Раздел 4. Письмо
Для ответов на задания 39, 40 используйте Бланк ответов № 2. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в Бланке ответов № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. При заполнении Бланка ответов № 2 вы указываете сначала номер задания 39, 40, а потом пишете свой ответ.
Раздел 5. Говорение
Imagine that you are preparing a project with your friend. You have found some interesting material for the presentation and you want to read this text to your friend. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, then be ready to read it out aloud. You will not have more than 1.5 minutes to read it.
Have you ever thought about where your food comes from? Most of us likely buy our food from a local grocery store, but have you ever thought about where food such as strawberries or bananas are actually grown? Or how far the salmon behind the fish counter has travelled? Nowadays we have access to all types of foods, even if they aren’t in season or even native to the United States. How our food is grown, processed, stored, and transported around the world makes a huge impact on our environment and climate change. ‘Food Miles’ is the term used to describe the distance that our food travels from the point where it is grown to the point where we buy it. Food miles can create enormous amounts of pollution. This pollution comes from the airplanes, ships, trains, and trucks that food travels on to get to where it needs to go.
Study the advertisement.
You are considering attending Caledonian Language School. Now you are calling to find out more information. In 1.5 minutes you are to ask direct questions to find out the following:
You are considering attending Caledonian Language School. Now you are calling to find out more information. In 1.5 minutes you are to ask direct questions to find out the following:
1) if part-time English courses are available
2) aims of placement test
3) ways to establish pupils’ level of English
4) if pupils can study English full-time during the day
5) languages the school offers
7) length of summer courses
8) minimum enrolment age
9) maximum number of students per class
10) if flexible start and finish dates are available
11) if the school is accredited by the British Council
12) if it is a centre for Cambridge Examinations
13) school facilities and services
14) if additional services are provided
16) language skills to practise
18) number of hours per week
19) extracurricular activities
You have 20 seconds to ask each questions.
These are photos from your photo album. Choose one photo to describe to your friend.
You will have to start speaking in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12–15 sentences). In your talk remember to speak about:
— where and when the photo was taken
— what/who is in the photo
— what is happening
— why you keep the photo in your album
— why you decided to show the picture to your friend
You have to talk continuously, starting with: “I’ve chosen photo number …”
Study the two photographs.
In 1.5 minutes be ready to compare and contrast the photographs:
— give a brief description of the photos (action, location)
— say what the pictures have in common
— say in what way the pictures are different
— say which of the churches presented in the pictures you’d like more
— explain why
You will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12—15 sentences). You have to talk continuously.
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