Раздел 1. Аудирование
Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждую букву, обозначающую утверждение, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в поле справа.
1. Mistakes can be helpful while learning a language.
2. The role of listening is great when you learn a language.
3. It is necessary to find the right balance while speaking.
4. Using idioms shows the high level of communicative ability.
5. Some people have a natural aptitude for languages.
6. It is the best way to learn new words.
7. Learning a language requires a clear motivation.
Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведенных утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Вы услышите запись дважды.
A. Friends haven’t decided how to spend their holidays yet.
B. Friends are choosing the lake house wisely.
C. The lake house provides the comfort of home.
D. Bob’s favourite genre is a ‘crime and investigation’.
E. Friends balance the things they want to do alone with activities that involve family members.
F. Friends are predicting bad weather forecast.
G. Friends intend to take advantage of the water.
What is the main idea people should pay attention to?
1) Gather information about the situation.
2) Give yourself time to think.
3) Realize your true potential.
People should avoid ...
1) taking a step back and think about the problem more clearly.
2) making impulsive or emotionally charged decisions.
3) being pressured into making a decision.
Which of the following may be considered as a wrong advice?
1) Think rationally.
2) Make up your mind as soon as possible.
3) Give yourself time to make a decision thoughtfully.
Arranging the finances one should ...
1) consider the possible risks of failing to think long-term.
2) evaluate your options.
3) look at the situation in both the short-term and long-terr persperctive.
Making a decision, one should ...
1) weigh the costs and benefits of the situation.
2) write down the pros and cons of the decision.
3) consider alternatives.
How should people succeed in difficult situations?
1) It is better to focus on the high priorities first.
2) They should postpone finishing some work.
3) It is necessary to prevent possible errors or problems.
What is necessary to remember?
1) Distance yourself from the situation if needed.
2) Talk with trusted friends, family, or experts on the matter.
3) Learn to delegate tasks and boost others’ decision-making skills.
Раздел 2. Чтение
1. The delicious object of adoration
2. Used for many purposes
3. Discovered by chance
4. Threat of getting poisoned
5. Selected for decoration
6. Several names for one fruit
7. Acquired by a spy
8. Nutritious varieties
A. Kiwifruit, shortened as kiwi, was named after the bird of the same name due to its fuzzy brown resemblance. The curiously shaped birds are endemic to New Zealand, and you’d expect the fruits to be, too. However, kiwifruit actually originated in China under a name that translates to ‘macaque peach’ due to its popularity with the local monkeys. First, New Zealand changed the name to ‘melonettes’, but that failed. Finally, the goose was reasonably replaced with New Zealand’s national bird and the berry broadened into fruit.
B. For centuries, everyone involved in the pineapple’s colonial trade absolutely adored it. The earliest records involve Carib Indians, expert navigators who traded and raided across the islands to collect all manner of bounty. When it was brought back to Europe, the pineapple was regarded as nature’s culinary masterpiece, a tropical delight reserved for English royalty. The women of colonial America competed with each other in arranging creative displays of food on their tabletops, with the sharp pineapple being king of the decorations and undeniable proof of wealth.
C. By now, it is common knowledge that the tomato has a tainted past. Being a member of the notoriously poisonous nightshade family, the bright red tomato was thought by wary Europeans to be toxic for over two centuries. But this was no simple assumption on appearance. Affluent Europeans did die of poisoning after eating tomatoes on their pewter plates. The acidity from the fruit released lead, a component metal of pewter alloy at the time, producing a deadly combination of tableware and tomato.
D. Humans raised and ate chili peppers specifically for their natural flame, producing varieties so intense that they blister skin and blind if exposed to the eye. In the records of conquistadors, the Aztecs and Maya ate chilies with anything and everything. Chilies were believed to have medicinal properties to cure various sicknesses. The smoke was used as a highly effective pest deterrent. If not practicing abstinence from chilies for religious or health reasons, a person who didn’t eat chili peppers would straightaway be presumed a witch!
E. Uniquely, ancestral strawberries originated in both Europe and North America. The French selected wild strawberries for sweetness, but the fruit was still small. King Louis XIV of France desired the Spanish throne, so he assigned a spy, Frezier, to study Chilean and Peruvian fortifications. But Frezier’s duty was not only to discover the military strength of the colonial Spanish. Previously, another dispatch had found unexpectedly large Chilean strawberries. A military engineer posing as a merchant, Frezier purchased the strawberries and brought them back to France.
F. Our favourite squash, the pumpkin wasn’t always able to be carved into sturdy, smiling Halloween decorations. However, even Pilgrims praised the pumpkin’s long storage time and sweetly nutritious flesh. Europeans were incremental to the creation of the modem pumpkin. The earliest jack-o’-lanterns were made from lit coals placed in hollow root vegetables such as turnips and potatoes. As Celtic tradition arrived in America, the pumpkin was grown through artificial selection to become the greatest carrier of fire and light.
G. Breadfruit was discovered by a scientific crew in Tahiti, an island located in the centre of the South Pacific. Eighteenth-century Europeans had gathered to witness the transit of Venus, an extremely rare astronomical event which is similar in nature to a solar eclipse by the Moon. With them was botanist Joseph Banks, who correctly and impressively identified the breadfruit as a cheap and nutritious fruit, albeit for the mistreated slaves of the sugar plantations. King George III directed Lieutenant William Bligh to gather this potentially valuable fruit.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке лишняя.
1. some three-quarters of the cheetah’s natural habitat
2. are needed to protect the species
3. with the vast majority of them dying
4. the study cites an alarmingly low population estimate of only 7,100 cheetahs
5. threatened with extinction
6. remaining in the wild live in Africa
7. such as providing incentives to communities to protect
According to a new study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, cheetahs are heading toward extinction, and different conservation efforts A_____________.
While acknowledging the difficulty in gathering data because of the cheetah’s tendency to travel over vast amounts of territory, В________________remaining worldwide, with most found in six African countries. The Asian population has been nearly eliminated, with fewer than 50 cheetahs estimated to live in Iran.
Since cheetahs roam widely, C______________is not contained in reserves or other protected areas. This has led to an increasing number of clashes with humans as they encroach on the cheetah’s historical territorial range. Because of this, the study’s authors recommend expanding conservation efforts beyond just setting aside protected areas, D_________________the species. Another problem is the demand for cheetah cubs as exotic pets in some Middle Eastern countries. This has led to the illegal trafficking of cheetah cubs, E______________________in transit.
Currently, the cheetah is classified as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, an assessment system for classifying the status of plants, animals, and other organisms F_________________. The study recommends that the cheetah’s status be elevated from vulnerable to endangered.
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18, обводя цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.
“Buy land — they aren’t making it any more,” quipped Mark Twain. It’s a maxim that would certainly serve you well in a game of Monopoly, the bestselling board game that has taught generations of children to buy up property, stack it with hotels, and charge fellow players sky-high rents for the privilege of accidentally landing there.
The game’s little-known inventor, Elizabeth Magie, would no doubt have made herself go directly to jail if she’d lived to know just how influential today’s twisted version of her game has turned out to be. Why? Because it encourages its players to celebrate exactly the opposite values to those she intended to champion. Bom in 1866, Magie was an outspoken rebel against the norms and politics of her times. She was unmarried into her 40s, independent and proud of it, and made her point with a publicity stunt. Her aim, she told shocked readers, was to highlight the subordinate position of women in society. “We are not machines,” she said. “Girls have minds, desires, hopes and ambition.”
In addition to confronting gender politics, Magie decided to take on the capitalist system of property ownership — this time not through a publicity stunt but in the form of a board game. The inspiration began with a book that her father, the anti-monopolist politician James Magie, had handed to her. In the pages of Henry George’s classic, Progress and Poverty (1879), she encountered his conviction that “the equal right of all men to use the land is as clear as their equal right to breathe the air — it is a right proclaimed by the fact of their existence.” Determined to prove the merit of George’s proposal, Magie invented and in 1904 patented what she called the Landlord’s Game. Laid out on the board as a circuit (which was a novelty at the time), it was populated with streets and landmarks for sale. The key innovation of her game, however, lay in the two sets of rules that she wrote for playing it. Under the ‘Prosperity’ set of rules, every player gained each time someone acquired a new property, and the game was won when the player who had started out with the least money had doubled it. Under the ‘Monopolist’ set of rules, in contrast, players got ahead by acquiring properties and collecting rent from all those who were unfortunate enough to land there — and whoever managed to bankrupt the rest emerged as the sole winner.
The purpose of the dual sets of rules, said Magie, was for players to experience a “practical demonstration of the present system of land grabbing with all its usual outcomes and consequences” and hence to understand how different approaches to property ownership can lead to vastly different social outcomes. “It might well have been called ‘The Game of Life’, ‘remarked Magie’, “as it contains all the elements of success and failure in the real world, and the object is the same as the human race in general seems to have, for example, the accumulation of wealth.”
The game was soon a hit among Left-wing intellectuals, on college campuses including the Wharton School, Harvard and Columbia, and also among Quaker communities, some of which modified the rules and redrew the board with street names from Atlantic City. Among the players of this Quaker adaptation was an unemployed man called Charles Darrow, who later sold such a modified version to the games company Parker Brothers as his own.
Once the game’s true origins came to light, Parker Brothers bought up Magie’s patent, but then re-launched the board game simply as Monopoly, and provided the eager public with just one set of rules: those that celebrate the triumph of one over all. Worse, they marketed it along with the claim that the game’s inventor was Darrow, who they said had dreamed it up in the 1930s, sold it to Parker Brothers, and become a millionaire. It was a rags-to-riches fabrication that ironically exemplified Monopoly’s implicit values: chase wealth and crush your opponents if you want to come out on top.
So next time someone invites you to join a game of Monopoly, here’s a thought. As you set out piles for the Chance and Community Chest cards, establish a third pile for Land-Value Tax, to which every property owner must contribute each time they charge rent to a fellow player. How high should that land tax be? And how should the resulting tax receipts be distributed? Such questions will no doubt lead to fiery debate around the Monopoly board — but then that is exactly what Magie had always hoped for.
Mark Twain’s quotation is used to show ...
1) how to achieve the privilege of accidentally landing.
2) the principles of a real estate agency organization.
3) one of the rules taught at modem school.
4) the main principle of the game of Monopoly.
According to the author, Elizabeth Magie would have made herself go directly to jail because ...
1) the sales of the game have been doubled.
2) the values of the game have been turned upside down.
3) the influence of the game is reduced.
4) the players are encouraged greatly to buy it.
Which of the following statements about Elizabeth Magie is TRUE, according to the text?
1) She highlighted the politics of her times.
2) She had a subordinate position.
3) She was engaged in publicity of her state.
4) She advocated for women’s right.
What inspired Magie to develop the board game?
1) The ideas she found in Henry George’s book.
2) The ideas her father developed.
3) The book her father wrote.
4) The book dedicated to gender politics.
Which of the following does NOT refer to the rules of the Landlord’s game?
1) The sole winner is whoever manages to bankrupt the rest of players.
2) The winner is the player who starts out with the least money and doubles it.
3) WTien a player acquires a new property, it gives him some disadvantages.
4) Every player gains each time someone acquires a new property.
According to Magie, the dual sets of rules were created because ...
1) she wanted to show how to accumulate the wealth.
2) players could create the strategies useful for real life.
3) she wanted to show advantages and disadvantages people faced in the real world.
4) players could find special approaches to property ownership.
What are the implicit values of the modem Monopoly relaunched by Parker Brothers?
1) To become a millionaire and celebrate the triumph.
2) To distribute tax receipts wisely.
3) To accumulate wealth and destroy the opponents.
4) To charge rent and contribute social development.
Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика
Прочитайте приведенные ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные жирными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Перенесите полученный ответ в соответствующее поле справа. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19 — 25. Ответ пишите без пробелов и иных знаков.
CREATEBitcoin is an internet currency that__________ in 2009 by a Japanese software developer.
CONTROLIn contrast to normal money, which____________ by government, there is no central organization behind Bitcoin. You can send and receive Bitcoin money without giving your name or address arid without paying fees to a bank.
USEBitcoins arc created by a process called mining. They can be produced by anyone around the world. People compete to solve puzzles ____________mathematical software. If they succeed, they get a certain number of bitcoins as a reward.
MANAGECustomers can save their bitcoins in an internet wallet, a kind of software that_______________ virtual money. From there people can buy products from merchants who accept bitcoins. You can also sell items and get bitcoins in return.
TRANSFERBitcoin is a way of ____________ money, for example from illegal activities, from one place to another. Not all governments are happy about this new internet currency. Some see it as a way of transferring money, for example from illegal activities, from one place to another.
THEYThe value of bitcoins is determined by ________ popularity in the world and how they are trusted. If many businesses accept the currency and more and more people use it to make transactions, its value goes up.
MAKERecent scandals around Bitcoin exchanges, however, ______ the value of the digital currency go down.
Прочитайте приведенный ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные жирными буквам в конце строк 26—31, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните соответствующее поле справа полученными словами. Каждое поле соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.
UNDERSTANDMany people would never dream of buying street food from a stall when travelling, and with the number of horror stories out there, that’s _____________.
ILLReports of widespread contamination and severe food- borne ___________are common.
CONTAINIf you arrive before or after peak times, you won’t know how long the food ingredients have been sitting around. You want a stall with a high turnover, constantly refreshing their ingredients and swapping out utensils and ___________. When it comes to street food, it’s always best to follow the crowd.
SIMPLEPut___________, queues mean quality, because people don’t stand in line unless they know they’re going to get something that’s worth waiting for.
COMPETEIn areas where_____________for street food vendors is high, this applies even more so.
EXACTQuite often, street food stalls that sell ______________the same dishes will group together in one place.
Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32 — 38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32 — 38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Обведите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа.
An orchestra is a group of musicians who play together on various instruments. Sometimes it 32_______alone, at other times it plays along with a group of singers. Orchestras give concerts and play for ballets or operas. They also provide background music for movies and TV shows.
When we speak of orchestras we usually mean symphony orchestras. They have many instruments and play mostly classical music which is performed in 33___________.
Some symphony orchestras have only 34__________musicians. The most famous are in the larger cities of the world. Among them are the Berlin Philharmonic, the Vienna Philharmonic, the New York Philharmonic, the Boston and London Symphony.
Orchestral music is 35__________in the form of a score, which shows the notes that are played by each instrument. Every musician only sees the notes that he or she plays. The conductor stands in front of the orchestra and directs the musicians.
An orchestra can have up to 20 kinds of different instruments. Large symphony orchestras can have a hundred musicians. Smaller ones like 36_________orchestras have between 5 and 40 players. They originally were small enough to play in hall.
A modem orchestra consists of four sections or families of instruments. The string section is the most important part of a symphony orchestra. It has more than a half of the musicians and consists of violins, violas, cellos and string basses. The violinists play high sounds and are divided into two groups. The first violins and the second violins usually play different 37_________. The 38________first violinist is the concertmaster of the orchestra. He helps the other musicians to tune their instruments and serves as the assistant. Cellos and string basses play low sounds.
Раздел 4. Письмо
Для ответов на задания 39, 40 используйте Бланк ответов № 2. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в Бланке ответов № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. При заполнении Бланка ответов № 2 вы указываете сначала номер задания 39, 40, а потом пишете свой ответ.
Раздел 5. Говорение
Imagine that you are preparing a project with your friend. You have found some interesting material for the presentation and you want to read this text to your friend. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, then be ready to read it out aloud. You will not have more than 1.5 minutes to read it.
The first maps were drawn by explorers to help them find their way home and show people where they had been. The maps showed the shape of the land, distances between places and special features such as caves and old trees.
Nowadays, maps show the towns and villages, and the roads, railways, rivers and mountains. Symbols are used to show all the different things on a map and there is a key to explain what the symbols stand for.
Over the centuries, people explored most of the Earth and put together the map of the world we use today. Maps of the world or large areas are often either pohtical or physical. The political map shows territorial borders. The purpose of the physical map is to show features of geography such as mountains, soil type or land use including roads, railroads and buildings.
Study the advertisement.
You are considering applying for this position. Now you are calling to find out more information. In 1.5 minutes you are to ask five direct questions to find out the following:
1) topics for the discussion
2) skills needed
3) club location
5) date and the time of interview
You have 20 seconds to ask each questions.
These are photos from your photo album. Choose one photo to describe to your friend.
You will have to start speaking in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12–15 sentences). In your talk remember to speak about:
— where and when the photo was taken
— what/who is in the photo
— what is happening
— why you keep the photo in your album
— why you decided to show the picture to your friend
You have to talk continuously, starting with: “I’ve chosen photo number …”
Study the two photographs.
In 1.5 minutes be ready to compare and contrast the photographs:
— give a brief description of the photos (action, location)
— say what the pictures have in common
— say in what way the pictures are different
— say which of the churches presented in the pictures you’d like more
— explain why
You will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12—15 sentences). You have to talk continuously.
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