Раздел 1. Аудирование
Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A—F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1—7. Используйте каждую букву, обозначающую утверждение, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды. Занесите свои ответы в поле справа.
1. Some modern films are very similar to each other.
2. The quality of films today isn’t what it used to be.
3. Big names in cinema make films commercially successful.
4. You can always find a movie to suit your current mood.
5. Films should be used as a source of learning.
6. Sometimes it’s good to watch a film just for fun.
7. Some films can put you in a bad mood.
Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведенных утверждений A—G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 — True), какие не соответствуют (2 — False) и о чем в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 — Not stated). Вы услышите запись дважды.
A. Jane is getting ready for her final exams.
B. Jane won’t be able to study tonight.
C. Jane’s computer isn’t working because of a software failure.
D. Fred has offered to lend Jane a computer.
E. Jane thinks she won’t be able to finish her work on time.
F. Fred enjoys watching horror films at the cinema.
G. Jane will go to the cinema alone.
What does James Chandler say about reading in the USA?
1. It’s more popular than watching television.
2. America is currently the biggest reading nation.
3. Americans buy and read only bestsellers.
Which is, according to James Chandler, the first reason
1. Proper education.
2. The growing number of libraries.
3. A variety of publications.
What, according to James Chandler, is good about book sales at local libraries.
1. People show how much they care about their libraries.
2. The libraries buy books at big discounts.
3. They make books more available.
What does James Chandler say about American public libraries?
1. They protect books from people.
2. They're located only in big cities.
3. People donate books to libraries to sell.
Which does James Chandler NOT list as a place where one can buy books in the USA?
2. Book clubs.
3. Drug stores.
Which of the following is TRUE about student-run university book stores?
1. Students make big salaries there.
2. They operate 24 hours a day.
3. Sales support educational grants for students.
Why are the ‘paperback supermarkets' good for the book trade?
1. They offer rather cheap prices.
2. They are conveniently located.
3. They have a wide choice of books.
Раздел 2. Чтение
1. Strange colours in the sky
2. Changes of the seasons
3. Expanding the influence
4. The last role
5. The last night
6. Waves in the air
7. Influence of magic forces
8. For war and peace
A. In rural Irish communities of the early 1800s, weather forecasting was anything but a precise science. There were people who predicted and explained turns in the weather through the prism of superstition. One particular storm in 1839 was so peculiar that rural folk in the west of Ireland, stunned by its ferocity, feared it could be the end of the world. Some blamed it on the “fairies” from local tales.
B. The eruption of the volcano at Krakatoa in the Pacific Ocean was a major disaster by any measure. In 1883, the entire island of Krakatoa was simply blown apart, and the resulting tsunami killed tens of thousands of people on other islands. The volcanic dust thrown into the atmosphere affected the weather around the world, and people as far away as Britain and the United States saw red sunsets caused by particles in the atmosphere.
C. The dust from Mount Tambora, which had erupted in early April 1815 in the Indian Ocean, shrouded the globe. And with sunlight blocked, 1816 did not have a normal summer. The weather in Europe and North America took a bizarre turn that resulted in crop failures and even famine. Spring came but then everything seemed to turn backward, as cold temperatures returned.
D. Wireless telegraphy originated as a term to describe electrical signaling without the electric wires to connect the end points. It was different from the conventional electric telegraph signaling. The term was initially applied to a variety of competing technologies to communicate messages encoded as symbols, without wires, around the turn of the 20th century, but radio emerged as the most significant.
E. By the time Abraham Lincoln became president, the telegraph had become an accepted part of American life. Lincoln's first State of the Union message was transmitted over the telegraph wires in 1861. During the Civil War, Lincoln spent many hours in the telegraph room of the War Department building near the White House. The president would generally write his messages in longhand, and telegraph operators would relay them, in military cipher, to the front.
F. One of the truly tragic events in American history is the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Just as the Civil War was coming to an end, on April 14, 1865, the president had sought a night of relaxation at Ford's Theatre, a short carriage drive from the White House. As Lincoln watched the play, John Wilkes Booth, an actor, shot the president and fled.
G. It is probably impossible to overestimate Queen Victoria’s importance to the British history of the 1800s. She took an active involvement in the affairs of state and strongly believed that Britain should rule much of the world as an empire. Indicating her role as an imperial leader, her official title as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland was changed in the late 1870s to also include the title Empress of India.
Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A-F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1-7. Одна из частей в списке лишняя.
1. and continue to influence its present and future
2. that influences the public opinion and lifestyle
3. has changed and evolved to reflect the needs of a growing
4. to one and a half million visitors each year
5. to half a million books and documents that help to inform them
6. that affect the lives of every Canadian
7. to both symbolize and celebrate the great nation it serves
Parliament Hill is the home of Canadian democracy and a proud national symbol. It is the heart of Canada's federal government, where representatives from across the country meet to make laws A ______ .
And it is much more than that. Parliament Hill is where you can explore figures, events and achievements that have shaped the country’s past, B ______ . Look closely and you can uncover an image of Canada, its people, history and culture.
The planning and construction of the buildings, monuments and landscapes of Parliament Hill began in 1859. Since then, the Hill C ______ and modern country. The Hill is home to Canada’s federal government, and welcomes close D ______ . A place of work, a place to meet and a place of leisure, Canada’s Parliament Hill has come E ______ .
The beautiful structures of Parliament Hill include many historic monuments and stone buildings with copper-tiled roofs. The Centre Block is home to the Senate, the House of Commons and the Library. The Library of Parliament preserves and protects Canada’s legislative past. It ensures that senators and members of Parliament have immediate access F ______ on all matters of parliamentary concern. However, the Library is more than a collection of books alone; it contributes to Canadian democracy by creating and delivering reliable and relevant information to and about Parliament.
Прочитайте текст и выполните задания 12—18, обводя цифру 1, 2, 3 или 4, соответствующую номеру выбранного вами варианта ответа.
Robb Wilier is an assistant professor of sociology at the University of California. Berkeley. He recently co-authored a paper called The Virtues of Gossip: Reputational Information Sharing as Prosocial Behaviour, which was published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. His research has proved that some kinds of gossip are altruistic and beneficial to society. No matter how fundamental his research is, many people find it difficult to accept such an opinion.
Research has been going on for several years about the ways in which fears for reputation encourage people to behave. This led to get interested in gossip because gossip involves spreading reputational information about people in groups. More specifically, the authors were interested in an apparent tension between the bad reputation gossiping and gossipers have, but how there’s a lot of ways gossip has useful social functions.
In the first study, they attached participants to heart-rate monitors and monitored their emotional reactions to events they observed in the lab. One thing they observed was people doing economic exercises based on trust. The researchers arranged so they would observe someone behaving in unthrustworthy way repeatedly; then the participants would have a chance to warn someone else they thought would have to interact with that person next.
People very readly warned the next person, passing on socially useful information to them. But what was more interesting was the emotional register of the behaviour. As people saw a person behave in an untrustworthy way, they became frustrated and their heart rate increased. But when they had the opportunity to pass a warning on, that reduced or eliminated their frustration and also tempered their increased heart rate. It is prosocial gossip that involves warning other people about untrustworthy others. It is pretty common, onerous people are more likely to engage in it and they report doing so out of a need to help others. It is very different from malicious gossip, which might be driven by a desire to spoil another s reputation or advance oneself.
So why does gossip have such a bad reputation? This research has just sharpened that question. Why would it be that gossip, which we need to function socially in order to keep people behaving a bit better than they might otherwise, has a negative reputation? It could be that we don’t need gossip to have a positive reputation for people to do it. Even the people who pass judgment on gossipers are gossiping as they do so. It may be that socially we’re wired to gossip. Evolutionary theorists have argued that language evolved in part to facilitate gossip, so we’ve developed these social norms against excessive or malicious gossip to keep the system from getting out of hand. News in a lot of ways is dignified gossip. A broad definition of gossip would include the news. I wonder how many journalists would agree with or share such interpretation of news and their role in a society?
It s very important that we discriminate between different kinds of gossip and the people who do it. The kind where you warn people about untrustworthy others is valid, so we shouldn’t feel bad about that.
Which of the following statements does NOT refer to the content of paragraph 2?
1. Gossipers have a bad reputation.
2. Society may benefit from gossip.
3. Gossip can ruin one’s reputation.
4. People in groups favour gossip.
The participants of the study observed ...
1. people in danger.
2. groups of economists.
3. trustworthy people.
4. examples of dishonest behavior.
Ability to pass on socially useful information made people
4. more confident.
“It” in 'people are more likely to engage in it' (paragraph 5) refers to
1. socially useful gossip.
2. malicious rumours.
3. a person’s reputation.
4. helping other people.
In what way did the research refer to the reason for gossip’s bad reputation?
1. It related it to language development.
2. It connected it to people’s behaviour.
3. It made the question more acute.
4. It proved that it couldn’t be explained.
The researchers see news as ...
1. opposite to gossip.
2. a kind of gossip.
3. an origin of gossip.
4. an outcome of gossip.
According to the author, what is important about gossip?
1. Not to pass it to untrustworthy people.
2. To see differences between kinds of gossip.
3. To try to feel good when you hear it.
4. To avoid people who do it.
Раздел 3. Грамматика и лексика
Прочитайте приведенные ниже тексты. Преобразуйте, если необходимо, слова, напечатанные жирными буквами в конце строк, обозначенных номерами 19—25, так, чтобы они грамматически соответствовали содержанию текстов. Перенесите полученный ответ в соответствующее поле справа. Каждый пропуск соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 19 — 25. Ответ пишите без пробелов и иных знаков.
OLD Have you ever thought about it? The custom of decorating a house with tree leaves or branches in December is actually ______ than Christmas itself.
CALLThe ancient Romans celebrated a December feast, ______ Saturnalia, by giving presents and decorating their houses.
TEACH At the same time, pagans in Germany worshipped a sacred oak tree. Then, when Christian missionaries _______ them to celebrate Christmas, they used a fir tree.
BRINGThese customs stayed alive in Germany for many centuries, and in 1840, they _____ to England by a German prince.
DOWe are a family of three. Most of the cooking in our house ____ by my husband, but sometimes I make dinner.
NOT OFFEROne day it dawned on me that our four-year-old daughter was willing to help me, but she _____ to help her father. I asked her why.
DO“Well, Mom,” she said, “Dad seems to know what he _______ in the kitchen."
Прочитайте приведенный ниже текст. Преобразуйте слова, напечатанные жирными буквам в конце строк 26—31, так, чтобы они грамматически и лексически соответствовали содержанию текста. Заполните соответствующее поле справа полученными словами. Каждое поле соответствует отдельному заданию из группы 26—31.
PRACTICEWriting has been the center of civilization for centuries. Most of our important records are on paper. In fact, putting thoughts down in written form wasn’t always easy or ______ .
DRAWEarly people discovered that they could make simple _______ the walls of caves.
FORTUNATE______ , they couldn’t transport it.
COMMUNICATEAround 4000 B.C., people started scratching messages into heavy clay tablets. Although this form of written _____ was now portable, it still was very heavy.
IMAGINEFor centuries, people tried to discover better surfaces on which to record their thoughts. Almost everything _______ was tried. Wood, stone, ceramics, cloth, bark, metal, silk, bamboo, and tree leaves were all used as a writing surface at one time or another.
INVENTNo major changes in writing materials were to come for about 3,000 years. A Chinese man named Ts'ai Lun Ts'ai Lun, discovered a way to make paper. The importance of this _____ is hard to overestimate.
Прочитайте текст с пропусками, обозначенными номерами 32 — 38. Эти номера соответствуют заданиям 32 — 38, в которых представлены возможные варианты ответов. Обведите номер выбранного вами варианта ответа.
Sefton Hamilton was not a very nice man. The first time I met him was last year, when my wife and I were dining with Henry and Susan Kennedy at their home in Warwick Square. I didn’t like Hamilton at first 32 ____ .
Hamilton was one of those unfortunate men who inherited immense wealth but not a lot more. He was able to convince us that he had little time to read and no time to attend the theatre or opera. Actually, he was not 33 ____ in anything but himself. 34 ____, this did not prevent him from holding opinions on every subject from Shaw to Pavarotti, from Gorbachev to Picasso. He couldn’t understand, for instance, why the unemployed were so unhappy when their welfare check was just a little less than what he was currently paying the workers on his estate.
The other dinner guest that night was Freddie Barker, the President of the Wine Society, who sat opposite my wife. Unlike Hamilton, he 35 ____ uttered a word. Henry had assured me over the phone that Barker was considered to be a leading authority on his subject and he had 36 ____ to get the Society back on to a proper financial footing. I looked forward to picking up useful bits of inside information. 37 ____ Barker was allowed to get a word in, he showed enough knowledge of the topic under discussion to convince me that he would be fascinating if only Hamilton would 38 ____ silent long enough for him to speak. But it was impossible to stop Hamilton.
Раздел 4. Письмо
Для ответов на задания 39, 40 используйте Бланк ответов № 2. При выполнении заданий 39 и 40 особое внимание обратите на то, что ваши ответы будут оцениваться только по записям, сделанным в Бланке ответов № 2. Никакие записи черновика не будут учитываться экспертом. При заполнении Бланка ответов № 2 вы указываете сначала номер задания 39, 40, а потом пишете свой ответ.
Раздел 5. Говорение
Imagine that you are preparing a project with your friend. You have found some interesting material for the presentation and you want to read this text to your friend. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, then be ready to read it out aloud. You will not have more than 1.5 minutes to read it.
Astronomy is the study of the universe and everything in it. This includes stars, planets and galaxies as well as other things. The word astronomy comes from two Greek words. The first means star and the second means law. A person who studies astronomy is called an astronomer.
Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. Ancient people used the positions of the stars to navigate, and to find when was the best time to plant crops. Astronomy is very similar to astrophysics. Since the 20th century there have been two main types of astronomy, observational and theoretical astronomy. Observational astronomy uses telescopes and cameras to look at stars, galaxies and other astronomical objects. Theoretical astronomy uses maths and computer models to predict what should happen. The two often work together, the theoretical predicts what should happen and the observational shows whether the prediction works.
Study the advertisement.
In 1.5 minutes you are to ask five direct questions to find out the following:
- dog's breed
- dog's age
- food it eats
- dog's skills
- instruction provided
You have 20 seconds to ask each questions.
Imagine that these are photos from your photo album. Choose one photo to present to you friend.
You will have to start speaking in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes. In your talk remember to speak about:
- where and when the photo was taken
- what/who is in the photo
- what is happening
- why you keep the photo
- why you decided to show the picture to your friend
You have to talk continuously, starting with: “I’ve chosen photo number ...” .
Study the two photographs. In 1.5 minutes be ready to compare and contrast the photographs:
- give a brief description of the photos (action, location)
- say what the pictures have in common
- say in what way the pictures are different
- say which of the picnics presented in the pictures you’d prefer
- explain why
You will speak for not more than 2 minutes. You have to talk continuously.
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